The increase of cannabis use, as well as legalization across the world and the EU, has now given us more opportunity to get to know cannabinoids on a deeper and scientific level.
One popular research question that scientists are examining around the world, and in the EU, is whether CBD (cannabidiol) truly has a mitigating effect on THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol).
Cannabis use is quite prevalent across the European Union, with the World Health Organization (WHO) reporting in 2015 that within the WHO European Region:
All the recent statistics show that cannabis use is on the rise, especially as more countries in Europe move towards legalization.
Now, more than ever, scientists, legislators, and the cannabis community are looking at cannabis, and cannabinoids, at different perspectives as we race to grasp all the knowledge we can in this new era of legalization.
One major issue that drives research is the issue of safety of THC consumption and understanding what cannabis users can to do mitigate any risks associated with over-consumption of this psychoactive cannabinoid.
Within cannabis science and the cannabis community at large, it’s generally believed that CBD can mitigate the effects of THC, a hypothesis that has been generally supported since it emerged in the studies of renowned cannabinoid science Dr. Ethan Russo in 2006. The belief is that CBD can act as a powerful “antidote” in the event of THC over-consumption. In fact, most guides about cannabis will tell users to turn to CBD to get them back to a feeling of equilibrium.
Current research suggests that CBD can:
However, three studies have recently emerged that show differing perspectives regarding the efficacy of CBD oil for reducing THC intoxication. Here, we’ll examine three recent studies that will show that although we’re getting closer to more effective research in cannabinoid science, there is still a lot more work to be done.
The WHO reported that the WHO European region has one of the lowest rates of road and traffic mortality, with most European countries taking official efforts to improve road safety. Drunk driving has been a large concern among European countries, with a median of 14% of road traffic deaths being attributed to drunk driving.
However, as cannabis use increases and EU countries work towards creating safer roads, free of intoxicated drivers, the issue of THC and other cannabinoids will begin to take centre stage.
An emerging body of research that largely includes epidemiological studies is suggesting that cannabis intoxication produces a modest increase in the risk of being involved in a crash, although not the risk of being seriously injured or killed.
However, one new study examining the modulating effect of CBD on THC while driving has revealed that CBD may not be as powerful as the community thought in reducing the effects of THC.
Earlier this spring, an article was released from Australia and New Zealand in Psychopharmacology that tested the hypothesis of CBD’s mitigating effects on THC.
In this study, 14 participants were put through various driving simulations, with each participant receiving different ratios of CBD to THC. All participants were identified as infrequent users, consuming THC less than 2 times per week in the previous 3 months, and all had possessed an Australian driver’s license for one year or greater.
Exclusion criteria for participation included current mood disorder, lifetime major psychiatric illness, history of clinically significant adverse response to previous cannabis exposure, any moderate or severe substance use disorder as assessed by an addiction medicine specialist, pregnant/nursing, interest in treatment to reduce cannabis use, current use of medications known to affect driving, active hypertension, cardiovascular disease, or chronic pulmonary disease.
All 14 participants received cannabinoids that they would vaporize before taking place in the driving simulations. This included a THC-dominant strain (11% THC, < 1% CBD [hereafter “THC”]), a THC/CBD-equivalent strain (11% THC, 11% CBD [hereafter “THC/CBD”]), and placebo (< 1% THC; <1% CBD) cannabis.
Prior to inhalation, measures were taken to ensure that participants did not have any alcohol or drugs in their system, and cognitive tests were performed as a baseline for which to compare to post-inhalation. Blood was drawn from participants 20-minutes prior to inhalation.
Participants were invited to vaporize their products using a standardized procedure over 5 minutes at 200 degrees C. Participants were asked to try to identify what cannabinoid product they’d consumed, with most of the participants receiving the placebo being able to identify it as such based on the size of the vapor plume created by the placebo.
The driving simulator was a custom-built program designed to emulate the feeling and experience of being behind the wheel of an automotive vehicle and was designed to collect driver response time to certain stimuli and driver behaviour within certain driving scenarios. Scenarios included both highway and rural driving areas, where there were other vehicles present.
Here’s what these experiments revealed, in a nutshell: Both the THC and THC/CBD group subjectively identified feeling “stoned” with the THC/CBD group identifying a slightly higher rate of sedation than the placebo group.
Both the THC and THC/CBD group reported feeling anxious behind the wheel in the simulated driving experience, with the feelings of anxiety being experienced later in the experience by the THC group than the THC/CBD group. Both THC and THC/CBD participants self-reported a decreased “confidence to drive”.
During the driving tasks, both the THC and THC/CBD group had a degree of “lane weaving” compared to the placebo group, yet it was shown that the cannabinoid groups left a significant more amount of space between their car and other cars, leading the researchers to hypothesize that this was due to perceived impairment.
When the cannabinoid content of the blood samples was examined, it surprisingly showed that peak THC levels were significantly higher in the THC/CBD participants than in the THC condition. This, along with the observed cognitive changes, the blood test results, and the driving test results led the researchers to conclude that,
vaporized cannabis with equivalent concentrations of THC and CBD causes similar impairment of driving and cognition to THC-dominant cannabis, and does not produce substantially different subjective effects
The researchers go on to reveal one of the most interesting parts of the study in that,
the presence of CBD may increase plasma concentrations of THC, and subtly increase some measures of cognitive and driving impairment. These results have significant implications for individuals using medicinal and recreational cannabis containing both THC and CBD
The researchers astutely acknowledge the limitations of this study that include a) that there was no CBD-only product tested in this study, thus making it impossible to draw a correlation between CBD use and driving; b) that participants were only infrequent cannabis users, and thus, didn’t assess effects on frequent cannabis users; and c) those who inhaled the placebo were able to identify it as such, possibly affecting their performance and results.
This study is very helpful in acknowledging that while CBD is often cited as a powerful antidote to THC, it may increase the efficacy of the THC when consumed in equal ratios. This is largely why CBD is used in conjunction with THC in therapeutic approaches to cannabis medicine.
While this study holds a lot of weight in terms of its implications for public safety, some concurrently released studies are further supporting the hypothesis that CBD can indeed mitigate the effects of THC.
Concurrently to the above investigation, a study was published in The Journal of Psychopharmacology that showed that the role of CBD in mitigating the effects of THC is still up for debate
A randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled, double-blind design was used to compare cannabis containing both THC and CBD (referred to as Cann+CBD in this study), cannabis containing THC but no CBD (referred to as Cann−CBD in this study) and matched placebo cannabis containing neither compound.
Participants were between the ages of 18 and 70 with the mean age being 26.2, 9 of the 17 being female. All participants were not frequent cannabis users.
Participants were randomly assigned to one of three treatments and were all instructed to have not used cannabinoids for a week prior to the study. Participants used a Volcano Medic Vaporizer to inhale their target dose [8 mg THC and 10 mg CBD (in the Cann+CBD treatment) and 8 mg THC (in the Cann−CBD treatment), which was deemed equivalent to 25% of an average joint found in the UK. All participants used a similar inhalation method.
Participants were placed in an MRI machine and were subject to various tasks, including a music listening task and a memory task.
The researchers found that compared to the brain’s “default mode” the low-CBD strain impaired functional connectivity in the posterior cingulate area and salience networks (which help our brains determine what stimuli to pay attention to), while the high-CBD strain caused only a minimal disruption to these regions, suggesting that the CBD counteracts some of THC's psychoactive effects.
The study says,
This lends support to an emerging view that the effects of THC and CBD are in many ways oppositional, and that CBD may serve to buffer the user somewhat against the harmful long-term effects of THC.
and goes on to say
The present data further suggest that CBD may also buffer the user against the acute effects of THC on the PCC (posterior cingulate cortex) and abolishes the relationship between functional disruption in this region and the subjective effects of intoxication.
In Canada, where cannabis has been made legal across the nation, scientists at Western University also put the CBD-to-mitigate-THC hypothesis to the test.
The new study published in The Journal of Neuroscience shares that they have reached the “critical neural nexus point mediating THC-induced affective disturbances and suggest a potential mechanism by which CBD may counteract the psychotomimetic and psychotropic side-effects of THC”.
This study is still hiding within the ivory tower and the public is not yet able to access the full text of this study, but what we can see shows in the study’s statement of scientific significance:
We demonstrate that THC induces cognitive and affective abnormalities resembling neuropsychiatric symptoms directly in the hippocampus, while dysregulating dopamine activity states and amplifying oscillatory frequencies in the ventral tegmental area via modulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway. In contrast, CBD co-administration blocked THC-induced ERK phosphorylation and prevented THC-induced behavioural and neural abnormalities. These findings identify a novel molecular mechanism that may account for how CBD functionally mitigates the neuropsychiatric side-effects of THC.
To put it simply, the scientists were able to show that the administration of THC can lead to “THC-induced behavioural abnormalities”, but that CBD can mitigate the “neuropsychiatric” side effects of its psychoactive counterpart.
A few aspects of research need to be recognized when interpreting research on cannabis, as not all research is to be taken as straightforward, especially around contentious issues like cannabis legalization. These aspects of research include:
Responsible consumers, and advocates look at the research, but also beyond the research and use their own critical thinking, experiences, and experiences of others to form their own opinions on cannabis.
When CBD was introduced to within the cannabis community, it was largely referred to as “non-psychoactive”, meaning that it didn’t have the psychoactive “high” associated with THC. However, as more is learned about CBD through various research studies, we do begin to understand that cannabidiol can affect the mind and mental health.
In recognition of this, the cannabis community has largely replaced the verbiage of “non-psychoactive” with “non-intoxicating” as it does not cause impairment.
Going forward, it’s responsible for cannabis brands, educators, and legislators to understand the acute details, and emerging science, that helps us understand how cannabinoids affect the mind, and body, and thus, safety and risk.
Euro CBD Expert remains dedicated to reviewing the latest research on cannabinoids to guarantee that those interested in cannabinoid consumption are up-to-date on information about how cannabinoids are affecting people, health, and our societies.
Arkell, T. R., Lintzeris, N., Kevin, R. C., Ramaekers, J. G., Vandrey, R., Irwin, C., ... & McGregor, I. S. (2019). Cannabidiol (CBD) content in vaporized cannabis does not prevent tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-induced impairment of driving and cognition. Psychopharmacology, 1-12.
Hudson, R., Renard, J., Norris, C., Rushlow, W. J., & Laviolette, S. R. (2019). Cannabidiol Counteracts the Psychotropic Side-Effects of Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the Ventral Hippocampus Through Bi-Directional Control of ERK1-2 Phosphorylation. Journal of Neuroscience, 0708-19.
Russo, E., & Guy, G. W. (2006). A tale of two cannabinoids: the therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Medical hypotheses, 66(2), 234-246.
Wall, M. B., Pope, R., Freeman, T. P., Kowalczyk, O. S., Demetriou, L., Mokrysz, C., ... & Feilding, A. (2019). Dissociable effects of cannabis with and without cannabidiol on the human brain’s resting-state functional connectivity. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 33(7), 822-830.
While growing healthy cannabis plants simply requires rich nutrients, selecting the best nutrient for the job might prove to be challenging. This is because there are so many different nutrient brands out there offering you nutrients to choose from.
Choosing the right nutrient is very crucial in determining how well your cannabis plants grow so you must ensure it contains the right ingredients in a balanced nutrient ratio. You must also ensure that the nutrient is compatible with your plant medium – soil, coco coil or hydro.
For the top cannabis nutrients to buy, check out this comprehensive list below.
Canna Coco A & B are some of the best and most popular cannabis nutrient brands in the market at the moment. The nutrients work with a biotrophic effect and provide your plants with Rhizotonic to boost root development and produce a healthy plant.
The nutrients are also easily absorbed into the plant’s system, producing a balance within them while boosting the plant’s resistance.
Canna Coco works quickly, thereby providing a quick result while saving energy. It is made to work on plants during the flowering and vegetative phases. So all you need to do is apply the nutrient based on the stage and watch it grow.
When using these nutrients, keep in mind that they must be used in an equal proportion to give your plant the balance required.
Also, start the growth process by applying small amounts of both nutrients –something around 3mL will be appropriate. As the plants grow older, you can increase it to 5mL, 8mL and finally 10mL when it is fully mature.
Fox Farm Nutrient Trio is a remarkable nutrient for cannabis plants with healthy natural components such as bat guano, earthworm castings, amongst other things.
These components help your cannabis plant grow into fat, healthy plants. While the Fox Farm Nutrient Trio can be used for hydroponic plants, it’s not the best option as its percentage of organic matter is too high.
On the other hand, the Fox Farm Nutrient Trio is perfect for soil and Coco Coir plants. When used on these mediums, it improves the flavor and smell of cannabis.
Fox Farm Nutrient Trio is highly concentrated which means adding a moderate quantity at a time can be all your cannabis plant needs.
The Tiger Bloom and Grow Big cans in the trio provide the crucial nutrients to the plants while the Big Bloom provides micronutrients that can grow and develop the plant’s root.
For coco coir plants, you can make use of the hydro version. This version has the Tiger Bloom and the Big Bloom, both with the same nutrients as those in the soil version.
Using this nutrient protects your plants from Magnesium and Calcium deficiencies. One of the best things about Fox Farm Nutrient Trio is that it is quite easy to use.
All you need to do is follow the right instructions, and your plants will be thankful for it.
If what you seek is an enzyme product of impressive quality, Cannazym is one of the best out there. Cannazym contains a combination of enzymes that provide your plant with vitamins and nutritious extracts.
When you use this nutrient on your plants, dead areas of the roots will be broken down and converted into active micro-organisms.
Cannazym also improves your plant’s absorption level, coaxing them to take in more nutrients at a quicker rate and strengthening their immune systems against pests and other harmful organisms.
Cannazym contains enzymes that hasten the conversion of invalid root areas from dead to useful sugar and minerals.
One of the best things about Cannazym is that it can be used both for soil plants and for hydroponic plants.
The General Hydroponics Flora trio provides your nutrients for all stages of your plants' growth including micronutrients, primary nutrients, and secondary nutrients.
To optimize the effect of the nutrient on your plant, you can adjust the percentage in which you apply each one of the trio. The product consists of purified concentrates that ensure good pH balance and improves solubility.
The components of General Hydroponics Flora work together to improve the aroma, strength, nutrition, and flavor in your plants.
It can also be used on both soil plants and hydroponic plants. It provides nutrients such as Potassium, Nitrogen, Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, and Sulfur.
Canna PK 13/14 boasts of a provision of the macronutrients; potassium and phosphorus. These minerals are some of the most important for the development of cannabis plants in certain stages.
When you apply Canna PK 13/14 on your plant, the excess potassium and phosphorus boost the production of calyx, altogether providing you with healthy, robust plants.
The 3 x 6 x 10-inch bottle will definitely last you for months if used appropriately. When using this nutrient though, keep it away from your general source of water as a phosphorus runoff can poison water.
General Organic GO Box provides cannabis growers with a complete package of nutrients and supplements for plants. The GO box is specifically made for soil cultivated plants though so it can’t be used for hydroponic plants.
The producers of this nutrient concentrated on merging natural ingredients that provide efficient and sustainable plant growth. In this GO Box are 16 oz. of Bloom fertilizers and BioThrive and 8 oz. of liquid plant supplements.
Canna Boost is a nutrient made from fermented plant contents. Its content makes it a great nutrient for stimulating the growth of seedlings and growing them into fat, healthy plants. Its strength in flower stimulation improves the appearance and quality of your plant buds.
Canna Boost also hastens the growth of new calyx which produces big, healthy and rich-tasting flower buds. The nutrient produces a timely harvest as all the buds will reach maturity at a very similar time.
The con this product produces is that it is costly, but if you can overlook that fact, its benefits are very much worth the price.
If your nutrient budget is robust, House and Garden might just be the best choice for you because its effectiveness matches its cost. One of the nutrient’s strengths is that it can be used on soil plants, hydroponic plants, and coco coir.
The soil version consists of algen extract, soil A & B, Bud XL, roots excelurator and shooting powder. With the right application method and schedule, your plants will grow and develop at a fast rate.
The coco version also consists of algen extract, soil A & B, Bud XL, roots excelurator and shooting powder. When House and Garden began their nutrient company, they specialized majorly in coco coir.
This makes their coco coir nutrients one of the best your cannabis plants can have.
Lastly, the Hydroponic version consists of algen extract, aqua flakes A & B, shooting powder and roots excelurator. The Aqua Flakes & B have a very low percentage of salt which protects your plants from a nutrient burn.
Plants require a lot of nutrients to thrive and Sensi Cal-Mag Xtra put this into deep consideration when producing it. Each of these nutrients works in the various phases of the plant’s life.
Sensi Cal-Mag Xtra provides the plants with Magnesium and Calcium to promote healthy growth. The Iron, Calcium, and Magnesium also provide the root with sufficient nutrients.
These nutrients prevent you from having unhealthy, poorly formed plants. Other nutrients provided by Sensi Cal-Mag Xtra include Manganese and Zinc.
Canna Rhizotonic is a strong, algae-based nutrient for boosting the growth of your cannabis plant.
In this full natural stimulant is a combination of various vitamins your plants need (Vitamin B1 & B2). Rhizotonic also provides over 50 microbiological substances added to boost the plant’s growth speed.
If you have unhealthy plants, Rhizotonic is a brand you should be looking into. Its properties soothe the plants and majorly improve their state. It also contains Oligosaccharide, a hormone that strengthens the root of your plant.
If what you seek is a trustworthy nutrient brand, Botanicare is a great option. The brand has been in business for many years and constantly produces effective products.
Botanicare makes use of experience to improve their nutrients and the impact they have on plants. Their products can be used both on soil plants and hydroponic plants.
For your soil plants, it is advisable that you use Bloom and Grow. The Bloom nutrient is made for the flowering stage while Grow is made for the vegetative stage.
For hydroponic plants, make use of the three bottles which include – Bloom, Grow and Base. The component of these bottles are all your plants need to grow strong and healthy at a fast pace.
Botanicare also comes with Hydroguard, a root supplement that preserves your plant’s root. This is majorly essential for hydroponic plants that grow in water. Hydroguard prevents the root from rotting.
Every component used in Botanicare is natural and organic. The level of Calcium and Nitrogen that goes into your plant can be controlled based on how you apply the Bloom and Grow components to your plants.
Dyna-Gro is often called the formula with the full nutrition. And it really is. The component of Dyna-Gro includes 16 important minerals your plants require to grow.
Dyna-Gro is also very easy-to-use and this makes it a good choice for new cannabis growers. It is also liquid which is the perfect form for plants to easily absorb it.
Dyna-Gro has a low phosphorus and high nitrogen formula that makes it a great option for tropical plants and other interior plants. The formula works on providing you with healthy, well-developed cannabis plants.
Without urea, it also reduces how much time you need to spend applying it. Dyna-Gro rids your medium of excess salt buildup, thereby protecting your plants from deficiencies. With the proper application of the nutrient, you can be assured of healthy, strong plants.
Humboldts Secret Base A & B contains all the macronutrients your plants require. The bundle is designed to provide indoor and flowering plants with the complete feed they need to boost their growth and quality. In this nutrient are Calcium, Phosphorus, Nitrogen, Magnesium, Fulvic Acid, and Potassium.
This nutrient is also compatible with all the plant growth mediums. This means it can be used for hydroponic plants, indoor plants, coco coir plant, and aquaponics plants. It can also be used through all the stages of your plant’s growth.
For large scale farmers, Humboldts can be used on flowers, plants, trees, lawns, and bushes. The nutrient is made with natural, quality products that pose no threat to your gardens. It also has a pH balance and is water-soluble which makes it easier for your plants to absorb.
One of the best things about this nutrient brand is that it’s two part system is very easy to use. All you need to do is apply both bottles equally throughout your plant’s growth stages. To get an optimal result, apply the nutrients after watering your plants.
One major factor to consider when choosing nutrients for your cannabis plant is its components. Ensure that the product has all the micro and macronutrients your plants need.
These nutrients include mineral and non-mineral components that naturally come from the soil, the air or from water.
They include Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur, Hydrogen, Carbon, Iron, Cobalt, Silicon, Oxygen, and so on. So make sure you check the nutrient’s packaging for the presence and percentage of these nutrients. The right order in which they should appear is:
To make the process easier for you, we have ensured that each product on this list has the necessary nutrients your cannabis plants need to survive. So pick out your cannabis nutrient today.
Galway is located in the west of Ireland, in the province of Connacht. It sits between Lough Corrib and Galway Bay on the River Corrib and is Ireland's sixth most populous city with a population of 79,934 at the 2016 Census.
While CBD has become one of the most prominent health supplements in recent years, government regulation around the world has struggled to keep up with public cannabinoid demand. So Ireland and nearby cities including Galway is no exception.
CBD oil is derived from the hemp plant and is also known as Cannabis oil/hemp oil & CBD oil. Hemp oil has high CBD levels and only trace amounts of THC. The amount of THC is so small that hemp is considered to have zero levels of THC. If you're worried about getting high from taking Full Spectrum Hemp oil than do not fret, hemp is non-psychoactive. Or if you are a person who is looking to get high from hemp oil than I am sorry to report you will not get high!
In most countries around the world, this type of oil is legal. However, oil's production is not regulated. According to research, cannabidiol is regarded as a major breakthrough in health science. Whereas, if the oil contains less than 0.2% of THC then it is legal and can be used safely.
Whether hemp seed oil is the same as hemp oil extract or CBD oil is a question that is posed all too often. Hemp seed oil is not the same as hemp oil extract or CBD oil, although both are made from the same plant. The hemp plant's seeds are pressed to produce hemp oil, so it does not contain as many cannabinoids as hemp extract or CBD oil extracted from the whole plant.
However, most CBD oil uses hemp seed oil as the carrier oil. To clarify Dr. Hemp Me's Full Spectrum CBD oil 10% is made from hemp oil extract (where all the cannabinoids are) and hemp seed oil (the carrier oil)
CBD oil is as user-friendly as any other supplement. CBD is used in a wide variety of forms. Some people use a few drops of oil a day, while others use it in an e-liquid or balm.
With this in mind, it should be remembered that anyone looking to buy CBD oil from Dr. Hemp Me will receive a product of high quality that best suits their own needs.
It is recommended to contact Dr. Hemp Me's instant chat located in the bottom right-hand corner before ordering to discuss which CBD product best suits your own personal needs whether it is a different strength of CBD oil or a different CBD product altogether.
Hemp, a type of cannabis plant, contains a significantly less amount of THC. This makes it much safer and less psychoactive than other forms of cannabis. To legally grow and harvest hemp, growers must get sanction from the HPRA and must obtain a special grower's license.
Next, they must follow EU-defined extraction methods to derive the hemp oil and other natural ingredients; failing which they will be barred from selling their CBD products in the Irish market. For example, cold-pressed hemp oil is legal to sell in Ireland. However, hemp oil that is extracted using any other technique or which undergoes further purification or processing requires not just HPRA authorization but also authorization from the EU.
CBD is not considered as medication and can not be prescribed by doctors according to the Health Products Regulatory Authority (HPRA) in Galway. There can be no factual arguments for CBD stating that it can cure any disease.
Therefore all CBD oil sold in Ireland is sold as a food supplement. Any CBD oil company that is advertising that CBD cures different ailments is breaking the law.
Despite the constant confusion surrounding CBD rules, Ireland is clearly working to liberalize cannabis laws. Taoiseach Leo Varadkar announced last year that the government would take action to decriminalize the use of recreational cannabis, which will certainly affect how THC and CBD are handled.
A working group was set up to explore how liberalizing cannabis laws could be translated into an Irish context in order to prepare for decriminalization. The group is expected to produce a report to Cabinet in the next few weeks on the possession of drugs for personal use.
Health Minister also recently confirmed that he hopes that the country's medical cannabis access scheme will be up and start running this summer, after almost two years ago announcing that the government is developing a medical cannabis program but still work is in progress and soon it can be used again as a legal product.
With the many benefits attached to CBD Oil, it seems pretty obvious that it should be legal in every country of the world. Yet, there is a buzz on whether CBD is legal in many countries of Europe, one of which is Italy. Many people are curious to know whether it is lawful to use CBD oil in Italy. People travelling to Italy from other countries are especially interested in knowing if they can carry CBD oil into Italy without getting arrested.
Laws regulating CBD is constantly changing in Italy and this has led to controversy over the use of the substance especially for medical purpose without a proper prescription. The murky areas of the laws surrounding marijuana pave way for the debate on the legal status of CBD and its products.
CBD, a short form for Cannabidiol, is one of the most active ingredients of Cannabis Sativa plant which is also known as marijuana or hemp. After delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD is the second most active ingredient in marijuana. It has been proven that CBD does not have any psychoactive effect as present in THC. Therefore, CBD does not make people high. In essence, it is very unlikely to abuse CBD even in its purest form.
There are thousands of products derived from CBD like vapes, extracts, and even gummies but CBD oil is the most popular. CBD oil is the purest form of CBD as it is a direct oil extract. You must know that CBD oil is different from hemp oil with a non-significant amount of CBD. That is, hemp oil does not have any cannabinoid which is present in CBD oil.
The chemical components in CBD oil vary greatly depending on the process of extraction and the chemicals present in the plant. Similarly, CBD is a legal alternative to medical marijuana with none of the side-effects that are associated with the latter. The continued studies on CBD have increased the buzz around it over the years.
The benefits accrued to CBD use are extensive though most of the claimed benefits have not been proven scientifically. However, due to the increased interest in natural medicine, CBD has been legalized by many and the government of Italy is not left out. Also, the absence of side-effects in the use of CBD unlike THC makes it more acceptable by many.
As shown by the production of a drug, Epidiolex using CBD in the US, it can be used to cure a seizure disorder caused by Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome. While CBD has been approved for the treatment of epilepsy in both adults and children above the age of two, it must be used as a last resort. There are other claims on the diseases that can be cured using CBD oils however we cannot discuss them as according to the HPRA in Ireland we cannot discuss potential medicinal benefits.
Yes, CBD oil is legal in Italy. Since CBD oil is one of the derivatives of cannabis, it is essential to give a brief insight into the history of the legalization of cannabis in Italy. The legality of cannabis has been a back and forth issue in Italy since the 90s. While cannabis was legalized and tagged “soft drug” in 1990 when it carried non-criminal penalties, it was classified as “hard drug” in 2006. In 2013 cannabis was legalized and made available to the people for industrial and medical purposes only.
With the legalization of CBD, the government realizes that the prize of imported CBD is high, so, the military was authorized to cultivate hemp but the regulation on its use was still considerably high. To increase the quantity of CBD oil produced in the country due to its medicinal advantage, the government eventually legalized the cultivation of hemp by the general public in with Italian Law Number 242 made in 2016 which resulted in the “green gold rush”. Italian law number 242/2016 provided that it is legal to cultivate and produce industrial hemp as long as the THC content is not more than 0.6%.
However, there is a ceiling on the level of THC that must be present in CBD oils to be legal, even if it is for medical purposes. When CBD was first legalized, the amount of its THC component must not be more than 0.2% but it has since been increased to 0.6%. It is still unlawful to use CBD oil with more than 0.6% THC even if it is for medical reasons unless there is specific and direct instruction from a doctor. Nevertheless, you can get CBD without the doctor’s prescription in Italy as long as the hemp content is below 0.2% in both online and offline stores and pharmacies.
In May 2019, a new Supreme Court of Cassation’s ruling was made to prohibit cannabis derivatives except for the ones without “narcotics effects”. This has created confusion among the growers on CBD, however, the ambiguity of the law created loopholes. This is because there is no clarification on whether CBD oils with 0.2% to 0.6% THC have the level of narcotic effects that will make it deem unlawful. The law indeed has many grey areas which if not addressed will continue to create confusion. As such, many people continued to plant, buy and sell CBD oils in Italy today despite the legislation.
Unlike most European countries, Italy has fewer restrictions on the use of CBD oil, however, due to wide drug abuse among its populace, the government is seeking to regulate the use of CBD products and that includes CBD oils and other consumables. However, when you think about the current legal status of CBD oils in Italy, you must keep in mind that as long as it does not have a “doping effect”, then it is legal. However, the current position of the government is not favourable towards the consumption or use of CBD oils that have more than 0.2% THC.
Buying a grow light for indoor farming requires close attention to details. You need to make sure a grow light has proper illumination, coverage, and plant penetration.
This is essential because plants need the right quantity of illumination, good coverage and sufficient penetration of light to get the nutrients and minerals necessary for healthy growth.
Since you are growing them indoors and not outdoors where the sun can provide them with the illumination they need, you need a grow light that is just as strong and can get the work done!
Without the best features, your plants may suffer stunted growth or appear small and weak.
So, if you are planning to buy a grow light, below are 25 of the best grow lights out there. These grow lights have been selected based on their size, durability, and cost to give you the best growth experience.
The Advanced Platinum Series is a grow light that enhances your indoor gardening experience greatly. It combines an impressive blend of 12 light spectrums and provides your plants with the perfect spectrum.
Advanced Platinum Series grow light also has all the features required for growing herbs and flowers. It has a sharp precision that provides your plants with sufficient light.
It also features include a 300 watts power draw, full-spectrum, a daisy chain feature and 3 watts of LED.
The stability and high power range of the Phlizon CREE COB makes it one of the best out there. The grow light provides a high level of brightness while managing energy.
The Phlizon CREE COB has a full spectrum that boosts the growth of healthy plants. The grow light comes with a 2-year warranty and a 30 days guarantee.
But you don’t have to worry about returning the grow light because it’s one of the best out there. It also has a long lifespan of 50,000 hours and is made with a fire-proof material for safety.
This grow light is specifically designed to help herbs and flowers grow indoors. One fascinating thing about the Viparspectra Reflector is that it provides coverage and PAR output in the right balance.
This coverage and PAR output are essential for your plants, especially in the right quantity and this grow light keeps them available at the right amount.
The grow light features an 11 wavelength full spectrum, 60 pieces of 5 watt bulbs and three years warranty.
It is not as durable as other grow lights
The Hydro Crunch T5 is one of the most impressive grow lights out there with its satisfying features. It provides strong illumination with sufficient coverage.
An aluminum reflector is attached to the grow light to even out the distribution of light. All together it features an aluminum reflector, a daisy chain, a power cord and 8 lamps with a power output of 6400.
If what you seek is strong and steady grow light for your plants, Agrobrite FLT48 T5 is one you should consider purchasing. This grow light provides high intensity illumination for different types of indoor farming.
The light is also very flexible with high lumen output. The Agrobrite FLT48 features a daisy chain, 75 fluorescent lights and delivers about 40,000 lumens.
Its design allows you hang the grow light in whichever way would be most beneficial for your plans.
One of the best things about this led light is the unique design in which it is made. The Grow Star UFO is made to be eco-friendly and energy efficient. When compared to the HPS, the UFO is definitely a better development.
It is also a very impressive led light with a full spectrum, 3000-kelvin led modules, 108 watts power draw and IR/UV radiations. The full spectrum comes with a UV and IR that provide optimal illumination for flowers and vegetables of all growth phases.
It also has a cooling system to regulate the heat, although it might get too hot when the light is on. with a 20 year warranty and a 30 day guarantee, you can buy this grow light without fretting.
Galaxyhydro grow light provides IR rays that keep your plants warm and boosts their growth. The wide coverage and strong illumination make it a great choice for greenhouses.
The grow light utilizes the essential white light spectrum, UV and IR from the sun to improve the plant’s photosynthesis. Galaxyhydro grow light features 200 pieces of LED lights, full spectrum, double coverage angles, and 2 years warranty.
The full spectrum makes it perfect for growing any type of plant, in any phase. Its daisy chain can also be connected to provide efficient lighting. Galaxyhydro is also power efficient as it eliminates light loss and optimizes the available light.
Although Mars Hydro-Reflector grow light is made for hydroponic plants only, it offers a lot of fantastic features. It features a 298 watts power draw, full spectrum light, and a reflective design.
With this grow light you can switch between bloom mode and grow mode. It also helps plants of all phases grow by providing them the perfect replica of natural sunlight.
Mars Hydro-Reflector grow light is energy efficient. Its design provides reflecting blades that generate lighting beams. The circuit board’s design also ensures that it is safe to use.
This way if one of its components becomes problematic, it won’t affect the rest of the board. With a 3 year warranty and 1 month guarantee, you won’t have to worry about purchasing this grow light.
Ledgle is a versatile grow light. It has a unique crystal optic lens that improves fruiting and dense flowers.
It can be used on any type of plant regardless of their growth level, their location, and can also handle different applications. Ledgle LED light features two illumination forms, full spectrum, and IR/UV radiation.
The grow light also provides 2 switches to set the light based on your plant’s growth phase. The two cooling fans are quiet and ensure that the heat is properly distributed without making too much noise.
Ledgle grow light provides you with a one year warranty so if you note any problems, you can call for help.
SUNRAISE Led grow light optimized optical lens tech for the benefits of your plants. Its PAR is one of the highest to be found in the market.
The LEDs are also made with 15w triple chips to increase its brightness, making it one of the best grow lights for your plants.
One of the best things about SUNRAISE grow light is the two switches for fruits/flowers and for seedlings.
This makes the grow light a versatile choice for any type of plant you choose to grow. It also features a steel hanger, 1000 watt led bulbs, a power cord and a rope hanger.
This grow light can be described as revolutionary. The producers of the TaoTronics designed the grow light to be convenient enough for use, while effectively providing plants with the light required.
For hydroponic plants, this grow light is an excellent choice as it can handle wet environments. The grow light features a functional bulb design, 3 wavelength bands and one 60 degrees beam.
For buyers seeking an affordable LED grow light, CF-Grow is a perfect choice for you. It is waterproof, has a life span of 50,000 hours, has a steel hanger and provides a good heat control feature. It also has a full spectrum that includes red, green and blue lights for perfect wavelengths.
The grow light is a good choice because it can be used for plants of any growth phase. Its 90° Glass Lens helps the chip last longer as it prevents it from getting wet.
It is also power efficient. It consumes minimal energy while aiding heat distribution and providing the right temperature to plant growth.
CF-Grow Cob LED grow light offers a 2 year warranty and a 30 days 100% refund guarantee for buyers.
Despite the simple build of this grow light, it provides a strong effect. It can be said to be a small but mighty grow light.
It provides your plant with powerful illumination and is perfect for both flowers and vegetables in different stages.
The Cree CXB3590 Cob LED light features a rope for hanging, full spectrum, and an HBG-100-48A driver.
The King X4 COB LED grow light is one of the best grow lights with fantastic features. Its full spectrum light makes it great for large scale farming and greenhouses.
It features four 300 watts LED lights, 2 internal fans, and a 215 watts power draw. Altogether, it is a very powerful fan that helps you manage energy while providing you with healthy, robust plants.
This grow light has won awards for its efficiency and can be said to be one of the best for large scale farming. The G8LED overall features include a 24 square feet cover area, 60 inches of penetration and 450 watts power draw.
G8LED grow light helps you grow big, healthy, tasty plants in no time. The grow light is designed with high PAR to produce quick harvest.
The light can also be used both for flowers and vegetables from the first stage until harvest.
It has a high level of penetration that goes as deep as 60 inches under the canopy. It also comes with wires and ropes for easy placement.
For a grow light with so many interesting features, Vihimai 1000 grow light is quite affordable.
It can be used for both mature and young hydroponic plants. It also features five 300 watts LED lights, a 250 watts power draw, and a full spectrum.
Hydrobest has some of the best features grow lights have to offer. Asides from its very attractive look, it provides reflective caps to improve light coverage and to eliminate light loss.
Its features in general include a full spectrum light, 8 cobs led modules and reflective caps.
This full spectrum grow light provides a powerful illumination for your plant’s growth. It also features 2 COB LED lights, strong cooling fans, and a light adjustment switch.
The CrxSunny grow light is another grow light with appealing features which makes it one of the best. The grow light is very effective and efficient with great performance.
With a 100,000 hours lifespan, it provides a strong cooling system, full wavelength spectrum and five 300 watts LED lights.
The Hydroplanet T5 is a great choice for growing vegetables and seedlings. It has play ballasts and plugs that can save you from stress.
It also features a daisy chain, aluminum reflectors, a fifteen-inch power cord, and 8 HO grow bulbs.
LightingWise grow light has T5 fluorescent bulbs that provide high intensity lighting. The grow light features 4 5000 lumen bulbs, multiple color temperatures and a long lifespan of 20,000 hours.
DuroLux is a strong grow light that provides high light output for your plants. This light has numerous impressive features that make it perfect for plants in the growth stage.
The grow light features a daisy chain, four 6500k lamps, switches for controlling operation and a light intensity of 20,000 lumens.
For large scale farming, this grow light is one of the best out there. It is made for plant canopies and greenhouses with enough coverage to improve the growth of numerous plants at once.
Apollo Horticulture features a full spectrum, hanging clips, 80 pieces of LED lights and so on.
The Apollo Horticulture grow light comes with 2 T5 lights. The lighting is similar to the daylight feel on a hot afternoon. The lights are 2ft long and the lamps are adjustable. It also has a steel frame and produces 24 watts.
The final grow light on this list is the Sun Blaze. This grow light is specifically made to provide plants with all the light they require for growth. It comes with one 2ft fixture light, a 12 ft. power cord, 120V light, 5000 lumens and has holes to hold hangers.
Before purchasing a grow light, there are some personal factors you should consider. These factors include the size of your garden. Is it a greenhouse or is it a small garden in your home? This can help you decide on the size of your grow light.
The type of plant: While some grow lights work with soil and hydroponic plants, some only work with one. The growth stage of your plant should also determine the type of grow light you choose. It is advisable though that you choose a grow light that is suitable for any growth stage.
Lastly, your budget should also guide you in choosing a grow light.
With all of these considered, the 25 grow lights listed above are some of the best out there and can help you narrow down your search while shopping. With the reviews, deciding on the perfect grow light for your indoor cultivation will be much easier and faster.
So you spent months and many dollars trying to grow perfect flowers in your yard. Taking care of flowers can be fun and rewarding if done correctly.
However, a lot of times, people do not have access to the right tools. The truth is that your tools will in no small extent determining how well your flowers will do.
Read More: 19 Best Stealth Grow Boxes & Grow Tents
One of such tools that are so important is the trimmer. Whether you are using a bud trimming machine, or simple hand-held trimming scissors, you will need to get the best.
Thankfully, there are several different brands of these tools available in today's market. The options are so much that you can sometimes get lost in trying to find which is best for you.
To make the process of selecting the best easier, we've reviewed 20 of the best bud trimming machines and trimming scissors in 2019. We've also highlighted the features of each, as well as their pros, to help guide your buying decision. Take a look at our picks.
This bud trimmer machine is one of the best hand-operated tools you will get in the marker. It is designed for use in places where noise is not allowed.
If you live in a quiet neighborhood and want to work on the flowers in your compound, then the Trimpro Unplugged is the perfect noiseless trimming machine for you. With it, you will not cause any inconvenience to your neighbors.
• Adjustable blade height
• Its blades are designed with high-quality stainless steel
• 8.9 pounds of weight
This is one of the simplest bowl-like bud trimmers available in the market today. It is designed to handle smaller projects; however, it still performs in some bigger projects. This bud trimmer is hand-operated, hence its use for residential buildings. It, however, combines some of the best features that you will get in trimmers of its category.
• It comes with adjustable blades
• Is comes with an inbuilt metal gearbox
• It has a diameter of 19 inches
This bud trimming machine is battery powered. It is one of the best battery controlled trimmers out there.
If you are looking for a trimmer that doesn't cost too much, but still delivers a scissors trim precision, then this is a perfect fit. Apart from being precise, it is also swift and efficient. It comes with some great features that anybody would want in a bud trimmer.
• The trimmer is built with a high torque motor
• 19.3 pounds of weight
• Features a bearing-mounted stainless steel blade
• All parts of the trimmer can be replaced.
This is one unique bud trimmer that's worth owning if you keep flowers or any plant. Its design allows for easy separation of flowers and leaves.
It is an electric bud trimmer, and it uses a 110 volts motor that divers top-quality performance. Here, check out some of its most significant features
• 35 pounds weight
• The trimmer is built to function with a tampered steel blade
• Its leaf recovery system allows for operation.
If you are looking for a bud trimmer to use at home, then this is probably an excellent fit for you. During our review, we found it to be a top of the range brand, despite the "mini" in its name.
It passes easily as one of the best bud trimming machines available in today's market. Its speed, power, and level of efficiency are all part of the reasons why it is as popular as it is today.
• Designed to feature a functioning power that allows for right trims
• It is one of the few pressure washable trimming machines available
This is another leaf bowl trimming machine that we found worthy enough to make our list. However, this one is from the power, a company that is already popular for the production of top-quality power tools.
This trimmer is built with all the essential features that anybody would want in an effective bowl trimmer. It is also one of the most versatile trimming machines available in the market.
• A Diameter of 19 inches
• Comes with a four edged blade made of stainless steel
• Fit in with a plastic top.
This is yet another simply built trimming machine that offers so much functionality, despite being manually operated. This bud trimmer comes with a pot-like design. It is an ideal machine to call into action in areas where there is not so much to do.
It does the trimming by the simple rotation of a lever. Despite its simplicity, it still does not go short in features and functionality.
• The machine is designed to feature high-quality stainless steel.
• All rubber parts of the machine are designed with food-grade rubber
• 13 pounds weight
• It features three blade options
This is yet another great bowl trimming machine from the quality conscious company.
This bowl trimming machine has a design that is almost identical to the one highlighted above from the same company. The only visible difference is that it features a smaller diameter.
Apart from that, you will find that nearly every other thing is the same.
• It has a diameter of 16 inches
• Comes with a four edged blade made of stainless steel
• Fit in with a plastic top.
This can easily classify as an ultimate bud trimmer. It is the perfect bud trimming machine to own when you are looking for one that can efficiently handle huge workloads.
Its industrial nature means that it can do nearly every kind of trimming work. If you want a machine that would easily power through your flower works in a fast, precise, and powerful manner, then this is undoubtedly the machine to call into action.
• It is designed to feature a trim logic trimming system
• Its comes with the automatic mist system
• The machine is made to feature a unique spray system that is resin repel.
If you are looking for a bud trimmer that offers so much for less price, then this is the perfect option.
This electric hand-held bud trimming machine is specially designed for optimal precision during work. Hence, it is your best bet when you are looking for a device that can deliver a high level of trimming provision.
• It is designed to run on a 115W motor
• The machine features a maximum speed of 33000 rpm
• Total weight: 2.5 pounds
Lastly, under the category of trimming machines, we will review the Clean Cut M-6000S. The machine comes with nearly the same features with its sibling that was reviewed above.
The only noticeable difference is its smaller diameter. Despite that, however, it still offers an incredible level of functionality and is worth buying.
• It comes with its metal gearbox
• It comes with an adjustable cutting blade
• Features silicone fingers
It is not surprising that this brand of trimming scissors has made our list, considering the level of quality that it brings to the line. Its large ergonomic handles make handling easier.
Despite being made of stainless steel, the scissors are still made to offer an incredible level of comfort and ease of use. It is worth one that's worth buying.
• Blade length of 35mm
• The scissors weighs 42 grams
• Stainless steel design
If you are looking for medium length scissors that are designed to be able to handle a couple of flower stalks at a time, then this option is a good pick.
They are built to be strong and durable and offer a lot to make work quicker and easier. There's a need to be careful while using the scissors, however, considering that precision is often sacrificed for speed.
• Total length: 60 mm
• Total weight: 1.6 ounces
• Stainless steel design
• Very narrow blades
This brand of pruning scissors offers a revolutionary design. It is made for use by experienced and inexperienced gardeners; hence, its simple design.
The return spring that's located between the handles helps if it ensures that it does not get stuck during cutting sessions. The sharpness of the cutting blades is an additional advantage.
• Designed with a non-stick coating
• Stainless steel blades
• 2.5 pounds of weight.
Another top of the line entrant from Fiskars that offers a lot of ease in the trimming process. One feature that customers have continually praised about this brand is its easy-open lock.
Its construction is also impressive, especially with its bypass blade design that allows for immediate work.
• All-steel blade construction
• Easy-open lock
• Portable design
If you want to buy a hand pruner that offers as much professionalism as most automatic ones, then this is the stuff for you. One of the most prominent features of this hand-pruner is the innovative ultra-fine polishing technology that the blade has.
Its titanium and Teflon coating allows for easy resistance of external climates. Hence, its sharpness for a very long time.
The handle, on the other hand, is made with aluminium and wrapped with PVC. The presence of PVC wrapping helps to reduce friction levels. It also helps to make handling easier and more convenient.
• Aluminium handle with PVC wrapping
• Advanced ultra-fine finishing technology
• Titanium coating
• Non-slip handles.
This trimming scissors easily makes our list of best trimming scissors because of its design and the level of functionality that it offers. It features a curved cutting blade that is guaranteed to deliver the best on your job.
Its combination of titanium and stainless steel makes it even more efficient and long-lasting. It is an excellent option to consider if you will be cutting curved angles.
The abundance of features that comes with this option makes it a market leader. It also features an automatic lock system that keeps the handle together when out of use.
• Ergonomic handle design
• Curved blades for better precision
• Very Sharp edges
• Titanium and stainless steel design.
Irrespective of the part of your plant or flower that needs trimming, you can be guaranteed of the efficiency of this trimming scissors.
The straight blade comes with a Teflon coating, which adds up to make it as non-sticky as possible. This coating helps to make the blade's sharpness more long-lasting.
The comfort grip handles that the trimming scissors come with help to make it more convenient and easy to use.
• Built-in safety lock for safe preservation
• It comes fitted with a gentle spring mechanism for smoother cuts.
• Teflon coated straight blades.
If you need a pair of scissors that don't lack in looks and in functionality, then this is the perfect stuff for you.
Despite being a straightforward pair, it still features a level of comfort that any user will be proud of.
It is made for extended usage. It also features a handle that's great for people with limited manual strength.
Like most others in this list, this option features special Teflon blades that are durable and non-stick.
• Total length: 60 mm
• Designed to feature Teflon blades
Last on our list is this top-quality hand pruner from VIVOSUN. The presence of a specialized locking system in this pruner makes it the perfect option to use around children.
Don't be scared about the locking system. It is also easy to open so that you won't find any difficulty in that. This hand pruner comes with a lot of other features that might interest you.
• Specialized locking system
• Spring-loaded handle design
• Comfortable handle
Since the advent of CBD oil, people have used it to treat several medical conditions. Not only this but its popularity has also brought about a revolution in the healthcare industry. But several doubts are surrounding the usage of CBD oil. Those uncertainties arise from the fact that laws related to the usage of CBD oil vary across states. And unfortunately, cannabis has always had a bad reputation despite its legalization.
However, according to the data presented by various scientists over the years, CBD oil has the potential to treat various medical conditions. So, if you live in Portugal and wish to know everything about the legality of CBD oil, keep reading below. Because in this post we will talk a little about CBD oils legal history in Portugal, its legal status in Portugal, and whether you can buy CBD oil in Portugal or not?
We all know by now that CBD oil is an extract of the cannabis plant. So its legality at large encircles cannabis. In fact, the usage of CBD oil will also depend on the laws surrounding medical cannabis. So, this is precisely what happened a few years back in Portugal.
Two proposals were submitted in the parliament, and both were declined. The first one was submitted by PAN: Peoples Animal Nature party. It said that people should be allowed to possess up to 75 gms of cannabis and grow six plants per household. This means if the proposal was passed it would have allowed an individual to grow six plants.
The Left Block submitted the second proposal. It outlined a roadmap for selling and cultivating cannabis. Well, both the proposals were declined. They were in favor of affordable cannabis production to put a tab on the illegal market. This would have allowed a much-needed change. Nevertheless, medical cannabis was finally legalized in June 2018. This move received massive support from the Socialist Party and the Social Democrats.
Eventually, this is how medical cannabis entered the streets of Portugal and along with it came the use and production of CBD oil. Having said that, let us look at the current legal status of CBD oil in Portugal.
Yes, CBD oil is legal in Portugal. But here are some things that you have to keep in mind. First and foremost, Portugal decriminalized the use of drugs in 2001, but it allowed the use of medical cannabis. As we all know that CBD oil is very much a part of the medical cannabis industry. Similarly, its usage will not get you in any sort of legal trouble.
However, if you wish to get CBD oil over the counter without any prescription, it is quite the possibility that you will end up in trouble. This is to say that you have to buy CBD oil from a pharmacy with the help of a valid prescription. So, the next time you go out to get CBD oil make sure you have a certified doctor’s prescription and a qualifying medical condition for the same.
If we talk about medical marijuana as a whole, It is fair to say that all cannabis-related medicines, except herbal cannabis, is legal in Portugal. But it is also noteworthy that the National Institute of Pharmacy and Medications regulates medicinal cannabis.
However, the cultivation of this plant still remains illegal. This means that if your medical condition allows you to use CBD oil and you wish to grow your own medicine. You strictly don’t have the permission to cultivate cannabis plant yet.
Interestingly, there is only one cannabis-based medicine that has been legal in Portugal for the past many years - Sativex. Moreover, this medicine has been legal since 2012, but its usage is quite limited. First, because of the stigma associated with cannabis and second this medicine is quite expensive.
So, in entirety CBD oil and medicinal cannabis share a legal status. But only a certified doctor can give you the prescription. Plus you will be able to find CBD oil at a pharmacist. And INFARMED is a regulatory authority for the medical use of cannabis.
Now that you know all about the legal status of CBD oil. Let us talk a little about, ‘How to get CBD oil in Portugal?’
Usually, in countries like the US, you can take CBD oil with the help of a medical marijuana card but the same does not apply to Portugal. Like I said earlier, you need to take a prescription from a doctor that states your need for medical marijuana. The doctor will specify the condition you’re using it for and the amount of dosage you need to consume. If you’re confused about the method of ingestion, the doctor will guide you on the same.
There are different ways to use cannabis. Well, the method that will suit you depends on your biology. Some people use it directly while others prefer consuming it through food. In general, ways that do not involve smoke are better for your health. That’s because there is no adverse effect on your lungs, and you can easily manage your health condition. Just make sure you take the prescribed dosage for best results.
But when it comes to Europe, the legal aspect varies across states. Keep reading further to know more about it.
The legal status of CBD oil and its usage hangs from a cliffhanger. Perhaps this is the reason why people are not sure about consuming CBD oil. But if we look at the legalization of medical cannabis across the EU, it is worth noting that European Parliament will always look forward to remove any roadblocks that halt the growth of medical cannabis as a whole.
Also, if we glance through the growth of the cannabis industry, it is estimated that by 2025, medicinal cannabis will play a huge role in lifting the Europian economy. Now, looking at the impact medicinal cannabis has globally, Luxembourg became the first European country to establish a regulated recreational cannabis use.
As a result of which, Europe too looks forward to entering the market of medicinal cannabis and hopefully people all over Europe will start using CBD oil to treat several medical conditions in the near future.
The cannabis industry is set for a significant boom. Holigen, a company based in Portugal, has partnered with a Canadian firm to set up a cannabis cultivation unit. It will produce over 500,000 kilograms of medicinal cannabis every year. Well, some estimates even suggest that the figure can rise to 630,000 kilograms. The statistics are lucrative and point to the large scale of use.
Another firm Gaia Pharma has teamed up with Canada based Aurora Cannabis Inc. The Canadian company is set to acquire a 51% stake and will collaborate to headline a local facility producing medical cannabis and related products. This investment from major companies is a massive setback for illegal traders. That’s because people will have access to good quality cannabis from dispensaries or pharmacies at an affordable price.
If you wish to read to learn more about the benefits of CBD oil? Learn more through this post.
The cannabis plant contains hundreds of compounds. Out of those, THC and CBD are the two most popular. That’s because they come with the medicinal properties which make the plant usable. THC or tetrahydrocannabinol is the primary psychoactive compound. The characteristic high you feel is because of this.
As discussed earlier, CBD is non-psychoactive and does not produce a high. Cannabidiol is very useful in managing pain, anxiety, acne, and other chronic conditions. People usually use it for managing multiple sclerosis and arthritis.
CBD oil is available in varying concentrations in the market. The best-quality CBD oil comes directly from hemp. Also, the mode of extraction influences the produce. Ideally, the CO2 extraction method is the best. The potency and purity of CBD are top-notch. When you’re buying a bottle of oil, ensure it’s of the right concentration and holds a nod from the agency. In countries like the USA, you can get a medical marijuana card online and buy your stock. But in Portugal, you need a written prescription from a doctor.
Portugal welcomes the use of medicinal cannabis, including CBD oil. But it will be interesting to see how successfully Portugal Parliament lifts the fog surrounding the legal status of medicinal cannabis. Till then make sure you use a prescription to get the right dose of CBD oil.
With the legalization and rapid rise of legal forms of cannabis all around the world, grow cabinets or grow boxes are now a heavily sought after product.
When we say legalized cannabis we are not talking about marijuana we are talking about hemp. Although these grow boxes can also grow marijuana however this is illegal in most countries around the world.
Cannabis legalization has cheered up a vast number of cannabis users across the world. Guess what? They are not the only ones who are happy about it.
Equally, manufacturers of stealth grow cabinets and grow boxes across the globe were delighted as they could add another demography in their target.
In general, people think about hemp if you say legal cannabis. CBD oil is derived from the cannabis strain hemp. Wanna learn how to do that? Click here.
Here, we will advise you on the best ways to grow hemp at home. Stealth grow boxes or grow cabinets using hydroponic systems are the ones you use when growing hemp at home.
We will look at some of the best stealth grow boxes & cabinets available at amazon.
Let me say this, legalization of cannabis doesn't carry the same set of rules and regulations in all countries. In some cases including most of Europe, a license is required to grow hemp in your home.
|Product Name||Best Feature|
|Grobo Premium Automated Grow Box||The Winner|
|Super Closet Grow Box LED TRINITY 3.0||Best Advanced Option|
|Dealzer Oasis 2'x4'x6.5'||4 Plant LED Hydroponics Grow Tent System|
|Hellogrower 30'' Stealth Grow Box||Hellogrower is a perfectly designed hydroponic grow box|
|The Bud Grower Complete Indoor Grow Kit||With Fan, Soil, 24"x24"x60" Hut. Best Beginner Pick|
|Growzilla 4 Plant Vertical Hydroponics Grow Box||The Growzilla 4 is one of the best grow boxes in 2019|
|HTG Supply 3 x 3 Grow Tent Kit||Easy to set up|
|Grandma's Secret Garden 5.0 Plant Hydroponics Grow Box||Lifetime warranty|
|VIVOSUN Hydroponic Grow Tent||The double stitching makes it durable|
|BloomGrow 24''x24''x48'' Grow Tent||It has several vents|
| ET-2XL Grow Cabinet with Digital Controls||Bluetooth enabled|
| Hellogrower 40" Tall Stealth 300 Watt LED Grow Box||It comes with a lock|
| Hellogrower 20" Stealth LED Grow Box||It has strong fans|
| SuperCloset Grow Box LED SuperFlower 3.0||It’s fireproof|
| SuperCloset Grow Box LED Deluxe 3.0||It is easy to use|
| Anjeet Reflective Mylar Hydroponic Grow Tent||It has a reflective interior|
| TopoLite 120"x120"x80" Indoor Grow Tent||It’s convenient for use|
| iPower GLTENTXL3 Grow Tent||It’s energy-efficient|
| Hydro Crunch D940009000 Hydroponic Grow Tent ||It’s durable|
As opposing to growing herbs on soil, hydroponic farming uses just a fluid mixture of nutrients and water.
Hydroponic farming and hydroponic systems revolutionized the way we grew herbs.
Here are some benefits of indoor grow boxes
Below we analyse the 5 best cannabis grow boxes that can be bought on Amazon.
A perfect grow box that looks stylish and smart. It is one of the most discreet grow boxes in the market.
Not only that, it can help you maintain a discreet profile when it comes to growing herbs.
It boasts an efficient carbon filter which reduces the odour from the inside.
Controlling the odour of the herb is one of the critical requirements of people who grow herbs at home.
It helps you to keep things within your house and nobody ever knocks your door for a few leaves.
You have preset and customized setting options. Just choose the recipe, plant, and you're good to go. The colour and design can sync with almost all types of interior. It also has a lock which adds to the privacy and security altogether.
Last but not least, you can set and change the settings using the Grobo app through your smartphone.
The smartphone app makes this a technologically sound grow box that can outperform almost any grow box out there in the market.
Super Closet Grow box hydroponics system is built to last, and it delivers maximum convenience and perfection.
This is one of the lavish and most sophisticated grow tents in the market. Supercloset Grow box can be used to grow your favorite herbs straight out of the box.
It comes with all the accessories that are required to start the herb growing process.
Above all, this is a fully automated stealth grow box with two sets of 16-plant hydroponic systems. You also get the warranty on all parts and tech support for a lifetime.
Do your brothers and friends keep nagging you for a few hits?. Super closet grow-tent allows you to grow up to 32 plants at once.
You can always store a sufficient quantity of herbs in your kit with this hydroponic system at home.
SuperCloset is a 13X Gear of The Year Winner with a proven track record of quality and expertise
The SuperCloset SuperFlower 3.0 is made with a 16 gauge steel which makes it easy to secure. The grow box is designed for easy use, making it great both for amateurs and professionals.
It also provides a decent airflow with its adjustable circulation and exhaust fans which provide air through a carbon filter.
For nutrient provision, the grow box package comes with a Ph Kit, Rockwool, TDS tester and hydroton rocksto. The grow box also comes with a 3 year warranty.
The SuperCloset Deluxe 3.o comes with every item you need to grow your plants. It comes with timers, air filters, nutrients, and growing medium. The box stands at 66” tall and 15” wide.
Its gym locker shape makes it look more interesting and almost conspicuous when placed in a house. Behind the cabinet are automated controls that also add to the conspicuousness of the box.
The medium size of the grow box allows you grow 6 plants at once, although there is a chance 4 plants will occupy the space. Lastly, the full spectrum LED light provides enough lighting for the box.
• It does not keep light sealed
Hellogrower is a perfectly designed hydroponic grow box. Unlike other cheap grow boxes, hello grower doesn't disturb your sleep with the humming sound.
People living at apartments or shared spaces will admire the low profile sound from Hellogrower.
You can lock this grow tent so that you can rest assured that nobody else can reach out to your herbs. Especially, the lock feature in this grow tent makes this a child-safe option.
Remember, the lock is not included in the kit, and don't forget to buy one separately.
This is a great option for people who don't have more space at home. If you just want to grow two or four plants, then this is going to be the ideal choice for you.
Conserving space can help you in adding more grow boxes in your house. Equally, it helps you to use more living space while you enjoy your herbs.
The Growzilla 4 is one of the best grow boxes in 2019. It is an improved version of the previous 3.0 model made to grow healthier, bigger plants.
This model was optimized after six months of upgrades and tests and the final result is a grow box that grows fine, healthy herbs indoors. The Growzilla 4.0 grow box is very huge with its 5’8 foot tall size.
It is also a vertical box hence that plants grow from the box’s bottom towards the top where the light is. You can also adjust the light in the box, making it possible to grow almost any plant.
Also, if you are wary about the energy consumption level of grow boxes, Growzilla can ease that tension.
The energy consumption level is very low to the point that it’s almost unnoticeable, hence you won’t have to worry about your electricity costs.
Growzilla 4.o is simpler to use than the previous version, making it a great grow box for beginners.
It also allows you to control the odor of the plants in your home with the Odor Control Scent equalizer. Overall, it is a cost-effective box when compared to smaller grow boxes.
The 5.0 version of Grandma’s Secret Garden grow box is a big upgrade from the 4.0 version. This grow box version is fully optimized to produce healthy plants all through the year.
The 3 foot grow box model was tested for 6 months before its release, making sure it can continually grow big, healthy plants.
If you prefer growing a smaller number of plants at a time, Grandma’s Secret Garden might be the best pick for you as it has the capacity to grow 4 big plants and 9 smaller ones.
The box is 36 inches tall, 30 inches wide, making it a good choice for both big and small areas. It also comes with a 150w HID Led Light, filters and hydroponic system.
For odor control, Grandma’s Secret Garden comes with a feature that controls odor leakage. This can protect your home or room from an overwhelming smell of herbs.
The package includes an air pump that provides oxygen to the plant’s roots. This boosts the growth of plants by an impressive percentage.
If you want a grow cabinet that can provide you with a healthy harvest in 3 months, you should consider getting the ET-2XL. The cabinet is Bluetooth enabled with impressive digital controls.
These controls keep you informed on everything going on in the cabinet. So, if the interior of the cabinet exceeds the appropriate temperature, your phone or iPad will get a notification.
For ventilation, the grow cabinet has fans with a 60,000-hour lifespan. This means the grow box will serve you for about 7 years and more.
This grow cabinet version also addresses condensations issues, ensuring you won’t have to deal with mildew or molds in the long run Lastly, you can get a 2-year warranty on your box.
While the Hellogrower 30” was, and is still, a popular grow box due to all its interesting features, the Hellogrower 40” was built to capitalize on its good features with some extra additions.
The grow box was perfected and tested for months to ensure it can produce big, healthy plants before its release. This grow box has a strong fan to provide fresh air to your plants. It’s also durable as it is lined with mylar film to take full advantage of the light.
Hellogrower 40” is a great choice for first-time users as it has a timer which makes it easier to set light schedules for the box. The shaded rear vents and sealed front door also helps in controlling the odor, keeping your house odor free.
An interesting addition to his grow box is a 4 site hydroponic system. The DWC hydroponics provides oxygenated water and nutrients to plants, boosting the plant’s growth.
If the power consumption of your grow box is of much importance to you, then the Hellogrower 20” is an option you should consider. It operates with low power consumption and operating temperature.
It also has a hundred percent mylar lining for light maximization. It ensures no light goes to waste and that the heating is better. It helps reduce gas and provides odor control.
Just like the Hellogrower 40” it is lockable and has a strong fan. The fan ensures there is a good supply of clean air while the vents have replaceable carbon filters that handle the odours.
This grow box is a good choice for amateur growers. It measures up to 15 inches wide, 20 inches tall and 15 inches deep making it great for small spaces.
It accommodates about two to three plants at a time, also making it good for first-timers. For extra security, it comes with a lockable door to keep both pests and unwanted visitors out.
With all its benefits, the Hellogrower 20” still has a few cons you should know about. The fan might get too loud sometimes, causing noise pollution.
The odour control could also do with some improvements. But if you need a portable grow box and can overlook these minor issues, this grow box is a great choice.
The practice of indoor gardening is gaining wide acceptance each passing day as more people feel a need to grow one plant or the other. However, a lot of folks are still confused about the best indoor growing apparatus to use, grow tent or grow box. Both are similar in function and features, but they are not the same. Below, we help you outline the major differences between a grow tent and a grow box. This will help you know which works best for you.
Grow tents have more space to plant your crops when compared to the grow box. That is to say, with Grow tents you are guaranteed to plant more crops and get more output. Experienced gardeners go for Grow tents over Grow boxes because of this simple difference.
Grow tents are designed in such a way that it is easy to dismantle it and couple it back. This makes it very user-friendly when compared to the Grow box because it can easily be moved from one place to another. Even though it is not advisable, but a situation arises that demands that you change the location of your indoor garden.
One of the characteristics of great product design is maintainability. The people that designed the Grow tent made it maintainable. This is one feature that makes the Grow tent stand out from the grow box. In the event that you need to upgrade any of the parts, or replace broken components, you can easily do that without waiting for a professional.
Unlike the Grow Box, the Grow tent is intentionally designed in such a way that you can access any part of the tent without disturbing the crops. This is because a big Grow tent has many access points that enable you to reach the back of the container.
On the other hand, because of the portability of Grow tents, it is prone to wear and tear especially if you bought a cheap one. Grow boxes are stronger and durable. So, if you are looking for something that will serve you longer, then you might consider getting a Grow box.
Well, some people care so much about the look of a device especially if it's one that will be placed inside their home. If your indoor garden is somewhere that is visible to all, then you might consider getting something that is appealing to the eyes. This is something that the Grow box offers better than the Grow tent. The Grow box is designed to look like a cabinet that can easily blend in as one of the home furniture.
The HTG Supply grow tent kit is a complete hydroponic grow tent that comes with all the equipment required to grow your plants indoors.
Most professionals know that this alone is a good reason to get this grow tent.
Included in the kit are the AgroMax grow tent, 400-watt grow light with a light bulb, GrowBright hygrometer, GrowBright thermometer, grow light hangers, 6” circulation fan and so on.
One of the best things about the HTG supply tents is that the plug-and-play kit saves you the hours it takes to build up most grow tents.
The equipment in the tent kit has been sized and chosen to work compatibly and help you grow plants with no issue. You can also assemble the kit in no time without using tools.
The assembled kit measures to 39 inches long, 39 inches wide and 85 inches high which is great for small spaces.
This grow tent kit which has been in service for over 10 years, is specially made to ensure success.
You can purchase an HTG Supply tent with the assurance that you will enjoy a good harvest.
The bud grower is a complete grow box kit that comes with everything you need to grow your herbs at a cheaper price range.
This is one of the best options for beginners as they lack the knowledge to buy compatible parts separately. The kit includes things like hang clips, lights, exhaust fans, pots, hot soil, leather case and many more.
Bud grower may not as hi-tech as Dealerz grow tent but an ultimate grow kit for freshers. You will never look for another grow tent due to this feature-rich addition in your place.
The 150W light fixture looks great and works well given to the size of this indoor grow kit.
Also, the light and fan controls are kind of advanced and come handy at times. The carbon filter looks sleek and performs better than a few high-end filters.
Nobody would want the smell of your herbs to go out from your house, the carbon filter help you contain the smell.
VIVOSUN grow tent is a great choice if what you seek is a big tent to grow plants indoors.
The tent has a mylar film lining which is good for reflecting about ninety-eight per cent of light.
This feature allows a direction of light to the grow beds specifically, instead of being wasted.
Also, if you care about the design of your grow tent, you will like VIVOSUN. The canvas for the tent is a robust 600D and the seams/corners are double stitched. This increases the grow tent’s durability and keeps the light in.
It has pole supports made from quality metal to keep your tent up. The tent component also has a snap-and-lock feature which makes setting up easier.
The large open and close window on the tent gives you a clear view of the tent, hence you can easily monitor the plants. Lastly, VIVOSUN grown tent can be easily assembled and does not require the use of tools.
Growing plants indoors have become a lot easier with BloomGrow Tent.
The tent exterior is made with a durable 600D oxford cloth while the interior is lined with a reflective waterproof mylar film.
Every material used in making this tent is reflective directing the light to the grow beds.
The seams are also sewn tightly to keep the light in. The entire tent is also double stitched to provide durability and to prevent leaks.
You can also assemble the tent quite easily with the instructions provided. The BloomGrow tent comes with plastic connectors and metal rods for assembling.
It also comes with vents that can accommodate filters such as fans. The rectangular vents help provide better ventilation. For a beginner in search of an affordable, durable tent, BloomGrow is a good choice.
• It has no winder for plant observation
• It contains plastic which can be weakening
Dealzer Oasis grow tent is the best among the top-rated hydroponic grow tents. This is my personal favorite, and it can accommodate up to 15 plants at once.
You don't have to worry about the sturdiness of the poles as they can carry up to 300 pounds.
The poles are constructed using only metals, no plastic at all. No-plastic poles mean strength and durability at its best.
Retailing at $995, this is the best option available at Amazon if you want an efficient and sturdy grow tent at a reasonable price.
Dealerz Oasis grow tent boasts a gravity-fed watering system. This grow-tent can keep going even without electricity.
On top, the system is crafted with simple and efficient design focusing on the needs of people who lack time to monitor the grow-tent.
The hydroponic grow tent is a specially made grow tent and remains one of the best because of its stable, strong construction. If strength and durability are your major concerns in a grow tent, then this grow tent will suit just fine.
The tent’s exterior is made with a strong, tear-proof 600D oxford material. Instead, the reflective mylar lining within causes the light to reflect on the plants.
It also has a zipper for sealing the entire tent. Anjeet grows tent is good for growing all types of herbs.
The grow tent is also designed to make the setup process easier. The poles are made of metals that click easily and also some connectors that can be used for the corners.
Proper air circulation is also guaranteed with this tent as it comes with numerous vents to be used for filters and fans.
The rectangle vents are covered with mesh which improves the ventilation while keeping insects and other pests out of the tent. Lastly, the tent has a removable floor tray that is waterproof and easy to clean.
One majorly appealing feature in this grow tent is the green window which allows the owners to look into the tent without having to go in.
The window is designed to keep the light out while giving you the chance to monitor the progress of your herbs.
This way you can easily check if the conditions of the tent are suitable and if your plants are growing according to your expectations.
The tent is also durable as it comes with a stable, strong frame. The exterior is made with the tough 600D oxford cloth which also helps in keeping light out. This 600D oxford cloth is the best quality for growth tents which makes it more impressive.
The tent’s interior is made with a reflective mylar line which enhances the tent’s durability with its waterproofness. The tent’s zipper is solid and can open and close for months without breaking or spoiling.
The rods are also made with coated metal to provide durability and strength. For ventilation, the tent is provided with multiple vents which support the fans and filters. The rectangular vents are also covered with mesh to improve the ventilation
With this iPower grow tent, you can be assured that your plants will grow to be healthy, big and nutritious. The grow tent is suitable for indoor gardens, hydroponics, condominiums, greenhouses and so many more.
Its unit is made with water-resistant fabric which moderates the humidity and keeps light in. The fabric is also resistant to tearing, wearing and ripping, making it great for frequent use.
Its interior is lined with mylar which has a 95% reflectivity, retaining light and reflecting it on the plants. Its sealed seams help prevent moisture from escaping and its lightweight keeps it portable.
If the electricity consumption of the grow tent concerns you, you can get this tent as it is energy efficient and consumes very little electricity.
The double-stitched cover is held with lightweight metal poles to keep it strong. The tent is packaged with an easy to clean floor tray, 2 filter straps and a manual.
This grow tent is made specifically for indoor plant growth and has all the features needed for success. It is constructed with metal to provide strength and sturdiness.
The exterior is made with a 300D oxford cloth which is decent in the aspect of durability. While it is not as tough as the 600D cloth, it is still strong enough for a tent. The interior is lined with Mylar fabric to provide a 100% reflection.
The multiple vents are placed correctly to provide an opening for filters and fans. Also, the cable events and ventilation windows are made specially to reduce or eliminate light loss. Its window screens are high density, designed to keep pests and insects out.
If you’re like most people who prefer washing their tents as often as possible, this tent is a great pick for you as its exterior and interiors are easily washable.
The assembling is very easy and quick. It also has heavy-duty pools which allow you to hang up heavy equipment.
To get a quick peek in on your plants, you can easily unseal the viewing windows located on the main door. This window allows you to see your plants without interrupting its growth activity.
Enjoy growing vegetables, herbs, fruits and any other plant of your choice with this hydroponic growth tent.
Growing herbs indoors without a grow box is easier said than done. Indoor farming / hydroponic farming requires a constant light source and water source.
Having said that, you should look for long-lasting led light sets and a reliable water feeding system. Equally, the grow box should be able to retain the heat within to conserve energy and time.
Further, a perfect grow box should have the strength to hold the pots, hydroponic systems, and all other accessories.
It is ideal to choose a no-plastic grow tent as they use high-quality metals to construct the frames.
Finally, buy grow boxes that come with maximum You would need so many additional accessories and devices to keep the hydroponic farming up and running.
It is wise to choose a kit that comes with all the required accessories.[rating_form id="1"]
The legalization of events of cannabis for medical use in different states continues to revamp the popularity of this specific product. Not only has it become easy to manufacture and cultivate marijuana, but also in purchasing its derived products. As a result, an influx of these products is what many are witnessing in the market.
However, identifying what is real and differentiating it from fake products is quite challenging for the customers. Many times, they end up purchasing poor quality CBD products as regulatory compliances on the strength of CBD are not in enforcement as of yet. As each state has the responsibility to induce and execute its policies regarding CBD strength, these are not available in many countries.
Therefore, this leaves the customer to their own devices. To help you out, here are some factors that help you determine the quality and strength of CBD you purchase.
Before taking your CBD oil bottle home after purchase, pass by your trusted laboratories and have it examined by a professional. Ensure they detail the results of their tests in a way that is easy to understand. Also, take home the certificate of analysis for your product.
If not up to taking the CBD oil to a laboratory, consider conducting a home test with your testing kit. Today, you have the opportunity to determine the strength levels of your cannabinoids with a home test kit; the alpha Cat analysis test. The package delivers on all ends and easy to use with any CBD oil from any company.
If you get the alpha cat analysis tests for all cannabinoid products in the market, especially CBD oil, you never have to undergo lab tests. You preserve money for laboratory fees and certificates for the CBD oil after testing and save on time. Besides, it keeps your choice of the brand, especially if the CBD oil passes the tests. You do not have to worry about the company and its reputation ever again.
Each bottle of CBD oil will often have these symbols mg and ml, with different numbers indicated for each. These show the quantity of CBD oil in the solvent. Each bottle of CBD oil is around 10ml and above in the volume of liquid in it.
In the liquid, the present cannabidiol measurements are in mg, and the liquid volume is in ml. Therefore, the indications on the dosage indicate the amount of CBD oil in each drop of the liquid or hemp seed oil you add to your dose each day. Therefore, the amount of CBD oil in a single drop is the strength of CBD in that particular product indicated in mg.
Before taking the CBD oil, ensure you follow your manufacturer instructing and strictly adhere to the dosage levels. Also, do not use similar products in the same way. It is essential to thoroughly check the labels as they may contain different strength levels even though they are from the same manufacturer or company.
A trusted manufacturer with nothing to hide and has confidence in its products will always have a third party test their products. The third party is usually an independent company or laboratory that the company has no control over, indicating no bias in the final results. Also, it enhances customer confidence in the outcomes of the results.
The test aims at testing the strength and quality of cannabinoids that are present in the CBD oil they are selling. It gives a list of the terpenes present in the oil, TC content if present and CBD, and other compounds as well. With such an analysis, you can gain confidence and trust in a specific product and purchase it for use.
Purchasing CBD oil is the most challenging task, especially for individuals with no idea which companies are trustworthy and which to steer away from and not look back. However, if you want to purchase quality and be sure of your product's strength levels, seek reputable companies with a reputation and position to protect. Companies that have a clean business profile and indicate the product's strength on the bottle for scrutiny.
Go for companies in the market for a while and have garnered adequate experience in selling cannabis products. For this, one can search the net for Canada, and a list of all websites from authenticated and reputed dealers would pop up. Look at their influence and their establishment in the market and the reviews from other customers.
It will assure you of quality products. Besides, established companies will openly offer to have your product tested by a third party with no qualms.
With such information, you will be able to differentiate genuine products from fake ones. If you find CBD oil in the market coming at an unrealistic price and even offer a chance for a bargain, it is not a reputable source to get your product. Chances are, the product is of low quality and has no CBD oil content at all.
The logic behind the statement is the law of supply and demand. As of now, the need for CBD oil is quite high. However, the amount of the same is quite low. Therefore, the price of CBD oil is high and without a bargaining platform. Finding a bargain able source indicates poor quality and low strength CBD oil.
Learn to look at your CBD product labels as they give essential information on potency levels of cannabinoids in it. Request a third-party certificate for your CBD as it may be of need in ensuring your safety and proper documentation of your product. Besides, this creates trust in the company you are purchasing your CBD oil from at any time.
Know that CBD content in cannabidiol comes with an mg symbol at the end, while the ml refers to the hemp seed oil in which the CBD dissolves. It indicates how much you should take with each CBD drop.
Conclusion Determining potency levels of CBD can be difficult and even challenging. However, learning how to do so is essential in ensuring your safety and health. Low product quality may damage
The county of Limerick is one of Ireland’s busiest counties and as such, the demand for CBD oil has dramatically increased over the last few years. The law surrounding CBD oil is complex however it is imperative to be fully aware of which CBD oils are legal before buying. Whether you are from Limerick or a tourist just visiting please read on to get the low down on the law surrounding CBD and also where to buy in Limerick.
Breakthrough in research put CBD into contention to be one of the ‘formerly outlawed, now accepted’ products of this modern century. However, as all things that concern ripping out the roof off falsely held myths, CBD is still not widely accepted.
Most European countries including Ireland have a long history of growing cannabis. This was however stopped in the 20th century, a period when cannabis was getting a bad-name on a global scale. This led cannabis to be classed as a controlled substance under the Misuse of Drugs Relations.
Possession of cannabis was labelled a criminal offence under the Misuse of Drugs Acts 1977-2017. This legislation distinguishes between possession for personal use and possession with an intent to sell or supply. At the minimum, possession of cannabis for personal use attracts a fine of a thousand euros to about three thousand euros. This fine is dependent on whether the offender is a first time offender or a second timer. Third convictions can attract a one-year to three-year jail term coupled with fines. On the other hand, if a person is caught possessing a large amount and found to be intent on selling or supplying, they can be sentenced to life imprisonment. The minimum sentence is a 10-year jail term.
The year 1995, saw the Irish authorities begin an assessment of hemp (Cannabis Sativa) as a source of sustainable fibre and oil. Ireland is a member of the European Union, so to comply with EU regulations on the subject, it is now legal to farm approved varieties of hemp by the European Union in the country. This variety is one that contains not more than 0.2 per cent of THC. THC is the main psychoactive substance in cannabis. It is responsible for the ‘high’ you feel when you consume marijuana.
In Ireland, CBD products are only allowed to contain 0.2 per cent of THC. CBD from hemp should not be mistaken for THC Cannabis strains. Cannabis with high levels of THC is illegal while CBD from EU approved hemp is not illegal under the Misuse of Drugs Act. CBD oil used to be frowned upon by the authorities. But in 2016, the Minister for Health in Ireland directed the Health Products Regulatory Authority to conduct a study on the health benefits of Cannabis and particularly, CBD oil has for users.
The study, which came after public backlash from citizens and legal parties who supported the use of CBD oil, led the authorities to soften their resolve on the sale and use of CBD oil. This, however, doesn’t lead to CBD being authorized as a medical product in Ireland. Doctors cannot prescribe the product as a treatment option as it is not considered one by the Health Products Regulatory Authority in Ireland.
You can, however, buy CBD oil and other CBD products in Ireland as long as it contains less than 0.2 per cent of THC and they are marketed as a food supplement. Possession of any CBD based product with more than 0.2 per cent of THC will attract severe penalties.
If your worried about whether the CBD you are buying is legal make sure to ask for the lab test report to ensure there is less than 0.2% THC. In truth, any physical store selling CBD will be legal as they would not last long if it wasn't. Online CBD is the tricky one. All Dr. Hemp Me's CBD products are legal to sell in Ireland and they are all backed up by lab test reports.
Novel foods are foods or food ingredients that were not available on the European Union Market to a considerable degree before the 15th of May, 1997.
Some forms of CBD oil are not allowed to be sold as food supplements in the EU. This is related to the process of extracting the oil. Generally, if hemp oil is obtained through the cold pressing of the seed or parts of hemp's plant, authorization is not required. Authorization is not required because hemp oil was consumed in the European Union before 1997.
The Cannabis Trade Association who view CBD oil as a product that has been in use all over the world before 1997 is hotly contesting this issue, therefore CBD should be exempt from the novel food authorisation.
If CBD does have to be novel food authorised this will literally shut the industry down for 18 – 24 months which is not ideal for the industry as a whole and also consumers who now rely on CBD for everyday use.
At the moment this issue is not being enforced and CBD oil companies are still allowed to trade.
There are lots of physical stores that sell CBD oil in Limerick that offer great prices and different CBD products. So let's take a look at these stores in no particular order.
On Thomas St, there are a couple of physical stores like Eats of Eden and Milagro CBD oil.
The physical stores in Limerick employ a team of experts who verify the percentage composition of THC in the CBD oil they sell to help you avoid any trouble with law enforcement. They also sell products in different forms like capsules, CBD vapes, and edibles.
If you are looking to buy online, a very reliable CBD brand is Dr. Hemp Me. All our products are tested by a third party to ensure exactly what is stated is in the oil. Currently, the CBD industry is very unregulated as such it is up to the consumer to do their due diligence before buying CBD. We are HPRA compliant and rated "Excellent" by Trustpilot.
We are based in Dublin, Ireland, and we are regulated by the Cannabis Trade Association.
So there you have it, a comprehensive guide on how to purchase CBD in Limerick, Ireland.[rating_form id="2"]
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